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One-stop-shop for FGS and cervical cancer screening?

“Health professionals do not know that bloody discharge, smelly discharge, pain when you have sex or infertility may be caused by Female Genital Schistosomiasis (FGS)”, the conference participants heard at the virtual IPVC (International Papillomavirus Conference, Toronto November 16-23, 2021 ). “Currently these women are treated mistakenly as though they have cancer or as if they have a sexually transmitted disease, but women and girls may have FGS instead. Their daughters and sisters  who use the same source of water for domestic purposes will make up a new generation of women with the same problem, wrongly diagnosed, untreated, misinformed and suffering. For the first time, we are suggesting to pair the diagnosis of cervical cancer and FGS in the same programme, elevating the standard of care.” FGS is a variant of Bilharzia, Schistosoma haematobium, transmitted in fresh water in Africa. The disease lasts for a lifetime. Please listen to world experts in cervical cancer and FGS who are teaming... read more

Mapping Schistosoma haematobium for Novel Interventions against Female Genital Schistosomiasis and Associated HIV Risk in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

Mahala Livingston, Pavitra Pillay, Siphosenkosi Gift Zulu, Leiv Sandvik, Jane Dene Kvalsvig, Silindile Gagai, Hashini Nilushika Galappaththi-Arachchige, Elisabeth Kleppa, Patricia Ndhlovu, Birgitte Vennervald, Svein Gunnar Gundersen, Myra Taylor, Eyrun F Kjetland


Women with female genital schistosomiasis (FGS, Bilharzia) have been found to have genital symptoms and a 3-fold higher risk of HIV infection. In South Africa, in KwaZulu-Natal rural schools, this study indicates that Bilharzia treatment could prevent genital symptoms in more than 200,000 young women. Furthermore, it is feasible that more than 5,000 HIV infections could be prevented in adolescent girls and young women by treatment and prevention of Bilharzia.

New York Times