Urine reagent strips for diagnosis of schistosomiasis haematobium in women of fertile age

Gundersen SG, Kjetland EF, Poggensee G, Helling-Giese G, Richter J, Chitsulo L, Koumwenda N, Krantz I, Feldmeier H Journal title: Acta tropica Acta Trop. 1996 Dec;62(4):281-7 PMID: 9028412 Article on PubMed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9028412 Abstract Hematuria, proteinuria and leukocyturia were semiquantitatively assessed by reagent strips in single morning urine of women of fertile age visiting the outpatient department of the Mangochi district hospital, Malawi. This was part of a diagnostic approach to female genital schistosomiasis (FGS). In 51 women ova of Schistosoma haematobium were detected in urine by a filtration technique. In 33 of these women ova were also present in genital tissue as demonstrated by microscopic examination of biopsies. In 209 women no ova were found in the single urine filtered. There were significantly higher scores for hematuria, proteinuria and leukocyturia as well as of the combined reagent strip index (RSI) in egg-excreting than in egg-negative women. The sensitivity of a single hematuria, proteinuria and leukocyturia reading was 98, 84 and 73%, respectively. However, the respective specificity was only 24, 22 and 23%. The best prediction of urinary schistosomiasis was achieved by a +2 score for hematuria, of which the sensitivity was 94% and the specificity was 61%. The high false-positive rates can probably be explained by contamination of urine by vaginal secretion. Moreover, cases of schistosomiasis have probably been overlooked because only a single morning urine sample was examined. The total absence of hematuria, proteinuria and leukocyturia, however, may be used to rule out heavy infections in community surveys. There was no difference in reagent strip scores between women with genital and urinary schistosomiasis as compared with those with...

Diagnosis of female genital schistosomiasis by indirect disease markers: determination of eosinophil cationic protein, neopterin and IgA in vaginal fluid and swab eluates

Poggensee G, Reimert CM, Nilsson LA, Jamaly S, Sjastad A, Roald B, Kjetland EF, Helling-Giese G, Richter J, Chitsulo L, Kumwenda N, Gundersen SG, Krantz I, Feldmeier H Journal title: Acta tropica Acta Trop. 1996 Dec;62(4):269-80 PMID: 9028411 Article on PubMed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9028411 Abstract Based on assumptions about the pathophysiology of egg-related lesions in the lower reproductive tract, putative indirect disease markers were investigated in vaginal fluids from 54 Malawi adolescent girls and women infected with S. haematobium. These women received a careful gynecological examination during which biopsies were taken from the cervix, and, if present, also from suspicious lesions in the vagina and the vulva. If the biopsies, either in wet crushed preparations or in histological sections, contained eggs the patients were considered to have female genital schistosomiasis (FGS; n = 33). The remainder (n = 21) were classified as having urinary schistosomiasis only. Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), a cytotoxic granule protein of eosinophils, neopterin, a second messenger molecule generated during the activation of macrophages, and IgA as an indicator of local B-cell activation were quantitatively determined in vaginal fluid. To clarify the origin of ECP, this protein was also looked for in histological sections by an immunohistochemical method. In order to explore whether such disease markers can be detected after absorption to a tampon-like material, ECP and IgA were also assessed after elution from a non-porous, polypropylene fibre web impregnated with vaginal fluid. The concentration of ECP in vaginal fluid and the degree of immunohistochemical staining in histological sections were significantly higher in patients with FGS than in women with urinary schistosomiasis only. The amount of ECP detected...

Female genital schistosomiasis (FGS): relationship between gynecological and histopathological findings

Helling-Giese G, Sjaastad A, Poggensee G, Kjetland EF, Richter J, Chitsulo L, Kumwenda N, Racz P, Roald B, Gundersen SG, Krantz I, Feldmeier H Journal title: Acta tropica Acta Trop. 1996 Dec;62(4):257-67 PMID: 9028410 Article on PubMed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9028410 Abstract Schistosomiasis of the lower female reproductive tract manifests itself in a broad spectrum of clinical features. However, clinical and histopathological findings have never been studied in a synoptic manner. Based on the assumption that any type of pathology present in the female reproductive tract is the expression of a complex pathophysiological reaction towards eggs sequestered in the genital tissues, we decided to analyze colposcopic and histopathological findings in a comprehensive manner. Thirty-three women in Malawi with urinary and genital schistosomiasis were examined parasitologically and gynecologically. A thorough colposcopic examination with photodocumentation was performed and biopsies were taken from the cervix, the vagina and/or the vulva for histological sectioning and immunohistochemistry. The predominant colposcopic findings were sandy patches on the cervical surface similar to those seen in the bladder and polypous/papillomatous tumors with irregular surface on the vaginal wall and in the vulvar area. The histopathological sections of sandy-patch-like lesions demonstrated only a small cellular reaction around S. haematobium eggs in various stages of disintegration. In contrast, in the case of polyps the histology revealed a more pronounced immunological reaction characterized by a heavy cellular infiltrate. One case of invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix was diagnosed. We conclude that colposcopy is a useful tool in the detection of FGS related pathology in the lower female reproductive tract and that the synoptic assessment of surface and of corresponding histological sections...

Female genital schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma haematobium. Clinical and parasitological findings in women in rural Malawi

Kjetland EF, Poggensee G, Helling-Giese G, Richter J, Sjaastad A, Chitsulo L, Kumwenda N, Gundersen SG, Krantz I, Feldmeier H Journal title: Acta tropica Acta Trop. 1996 Dec;62(4):239-55 PMID: 9028409 Article on PubMed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9028409 Abstract A total of 51 women with urinary schistosomiasis haematobium were examined in order to identify diagnostic indicators for female genital schistosomiasis (FGS). Patients were selected at random from the outpatient department of the Mangochi District Hospital, Malawi. The medical histories were recorded according to a pre-designed questionnaire and the women were subjected to a thorough gynaecological examination including colposcopy and photographic documentation of lesions. Microscopy of genital biopsies revealed that 33 of the 51 women had S. haematobium ova in cervix, vagina and/or vulva in addition to the presence of ova in urine. The most sensitive diagnostic procedure was beside microscopic examination of a wet cervix biopsy crushed between two glass slides, which revealed 25 of the 33 genital infections. There was a significant correlation between the size of genital lesions and the number of ova counted per mm2 of crushed tissue. Women with FGS had significantly more tumours in the vulva than women with schistosomiasis limited to the urinary tract. Most of the observed genital pathology could easily be identified by the naked eye, but colposcopic examination yielded valuable additional information like the demonstration of neovascularisation around cervical sandy patches. Few of the symptoms previously regarded as indicators for FGS could be linked to the presence of schistosome ova in genital tissue. Husbands of infertile women with FGS had children with other women significantly more often than husbands of women who only had...

Schistosomiasis in women: manifestations in the upper reproductive tract

Helling-Giese G, Kjetland EF, Gundersen SG, Poggensee G, Richter J, Krantz I, Feldmeier H Journal title: Acta tropica Acta Trop. 1996 Dec;62(4):225-38 PMID: 9028408 Article on PubMed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9028408 Abstract Female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) is a neglected disease entity which may give rise to considerable suffering among women of child-bearing age in areas where schistosomiasis (especially due to Schistosoma haematobium) is prevalent. The close relation between the vessels in genital organs and the urinary bladder enables the parasite to easily change location to virtually any organs in the female pelvic area. Symptoms concur with the anatomical location of worm pairs and their ova. Lesions of the lower female genital tract can easily be investigated by cytology, histology or direct demonstration of eggs in scrapings or biopsies whereas schistosomiasis of the upper genital tract is clinically indecipherable and less accessible for examination. In the literature there are references to FGS as a cause of infertility, complications of pregnancy, menstrual disorders, problems related to sexual intercourse, diagnostic similarities to STDs and cancer, unspecified complaints related to blood loss, chronic abdominal pain, social segregation and related psychological problems. The diagnosis of female upper genital schistosomiasis is difficult and the authors point out possible diagnostic procedures which might be helpful for further understanding of this complex entity....